Artificial lighting at night has direct impacts on biodiversity (fauna and flora). So how do you master them?\r\nArtificial night lighting has direct impacts on biodiversity: flora, insects, birds, terrestrial and flying mammals, fish, amphibians and reptiles.\r\nFive kinds of impacts on insects were proposed by Owens in 2018 (Sources : CEREMA). First, desynchronisation when artificial light alters the biological rhythms and internal clocks of wildlife by desynchronising their activities usually based on day length. As a result, the reproductive functions and physiological state of insects in particular is altered, as well as interactions between species (pollination, prey\/predator ratio, etc.).\r\nWe can also add disorientation because at night, wildlife are guided by natural landmarks, such as the stars and the moon. The presence of artificial light upsets these landmarks and some insects end up in unsuitable areas by confusing the moon with lamps and thus risk dying. Another direct impact of artificial lighting; attraction. Indeed, artificial light attracting insects, 30 to 40% of them die from a collision, dehydration, overheating or predation. 30 to 40% of insects approaching a lighting source die in a short time and a majority remain captive ("sink effect"). As for desensitization, this prevents any feeding or reproduction of wildlife because of the light saturation of the place.\r\nFinally, recognition of the environment, which, in certain cases, will allow the fauna to improve their recognition of the environment thanks to artificial lighting and thus allow them to prolong their nocturnal activity or, on the contrary, alter their ability to distinguish colors, and therefore their own species or predators.\r\nIn addition to the many negative effects of artificial lighting on fauna, flora is also affected. Indeed, it has been observed that by over-illuminating a meadow 24 hours a day, visits by nocturnal pollinators decreased by 62% and fruit production by 13%.\r\nHere is an infographic summarising the harmful effects on biodiversity of uncontrolled lighting, produced by Ragni.\r\n\r\nWhat are the solutions ?\r\nFirst of all, an order of December 27, 2018 sets the technical requirements to be respected for public lighting in built-up areas and outside built-up areas. "The emissions of artificial light from outdoor lighting installations and indoor lighting emitted to the outside are designed to prevent, limit and reduce light pollution, in particular excessive disturbance to people, fauna, flora or to ecosystems, resulting in wasted energy or preventing observation of the night sky. »\r\nRespect the CIE Flux code n.3\r\nThis represents the proportion of luminous flux emitted in the lower hemisphere at a precise angle compared to the luminous flux emitted in the entire lower hemisphere. This maximum flux must be 35 lm\/m2 in built-up areas and 25 lm\/m2 outside built-up areas for conventional public lighting.\r\nChoose the right optics\r\nThe decree of December 27, 2018 specifies that the manufacturer must produce a luminaire with an ULR (Upward Light Ratio: the ratio of the outgoing flux of the luminaires emitted in the upper hemisphere to the total outgoing flux of the luminaires) of less than 1%.\r\nChoosing the right optics provides better lighting by not directing the luminous flux towards the sky and by reducing those scattered on the sides. Thus, a good light distribution makes it possible to spare flying species by not eliminating their natural landmarks such as the stars and also the terrestrial and aquatic species present on the sides of the lighting solutions.\r\nThe right color temperatures\r\nIt’s important to use color temperatures close to yellow or warm white to avoid insect aspiration phenomena attracted by this light. This color temperature is measured in Kelvin “K” and must not exceed 3000 K in the classic zone or even 2400 K on astronomical observation sites. The possible color temperatures at Novéa are: Amber - 2200K - 2700K - 3000 K.\r\nExample of installation on a path in Wasquehal (59)\r\nIn the town of Wasquehal, 74 solar lighting solutions light up a path and to preserve the town's own biodiversity, the URL is 0%, the color temperature of the lighting is more orange (2200 K), and that -it does not overlook the water so as not to disturb aquatic species thanks to specific optics (ASY 13). In addition, the CIE flux code has been respected and the sets are lowered to 20% the rest of the night, and turn off completely between 1 a.m. and 4 a.m. to turn on again at 100% 1 hour before dawn in order to illuminate the area only when users are present.\r\nThus, Novéa did everything to respect the biodiversity of the installation site.\r\nI watch the video of the project\r\n\r\nLight as needed\r\nIt’s necessary to adopt an approach of lighting better with less, adjusting the lighting as closely as possible to avoid oversizing and light pollution.\r\nThus, this approach of reflection on the use of the area and the surrounding species makes it possible to adapt the duration and the power of lighting with tools such as programming, presence detection, dimming mode... Many solutions make it possible to adapt its lighting to the needs of the users and to the characteristics of the area to integrate into the global ecosystem.\r\nFor example, on the timing diagram, the solar lighting solutions have been programmed to go on dimming mode and turn on at 100% of their capacity only if a passage is detected. By adjusting the programming to the exact needs of the aera, we save energy by offering optimized models that will use less natural resources during their manufacture and will better respect biodiversity in their use.\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n \r\nExample of installation in the city of La Roche-sur-Yon\r\nNovéa use presence detection and dimming mode for suitable lighting scenarios and takes into account the biodiversity constraints of the area of installation to anticipate the impacts of its equipment.\r\nFor example, Novéa has equipped the city of La Roche sur Yon (85) with 12 lighting solar solutions that perfectly meet the environmental, economic and social challenges of the area.\r\nIndeed, the city needed to illuminate the surroundings of one of its schools, the Lycée Nature. Novéa has therefore deployed 12 solar lighting solutions to meet the city's need for security, while adapting to the constraints linked to biodiversity and the specificities of shaded areas.\r\nThus, to adapt to the frequentation of the place, the solutions switch off completely from 10 p.m. to 5:30 a.m. and are on dimming mode at 0% with 3 hours of cumulative detection planned.\r\nWatch the video of the project\r\n\r\n \r\nTo conclude, our solar lighting solutions thus comply with the decree of 27\/12\/2018 relating to the prevention, reduction and limitation of light pollution. Novéa further develops its approaches by integrating the preservation of biodiversity into its overall sustainable development policy, and offers tailor-made autonomous public lighting scenarios, adapted to the environment in which they must blend in for useful lighting. , controlled and sustainable.\r\nDo you have a lighting project? Over here!